I’m a MindCORE Research Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. Most of my work lies at the intersection between philosophy of mind and cognitive science, and I’m particularly interested in the non-linguistic mind – i.e. psychological capacities that emerge independently of natural language, and psychological processes that do not depend on linguistically structured representations.

Before arriving at Penn, I completed a DPhil in Philosophy at the University of Oxford (June 2019) and held a VISTA Research Fellowship at York University (July 2019 – Sept 2021). In 2017-18 I froze my studies in Oxford to take up a Procter Fellowship at Princeton (a position held by Alan Turing 80 years previously!), and during the final year of my DPhil I was employed as a Researcher on The Sense of Commitment Project at the University of Warwick. Here’s my CV.

In recent work, I’ve argued that humans and other animals possess a number sense which represents rational numbers, characterized the format of our perceptual representations (clarifying the structural and syntactic principles by which these analogue representations compose), and argued that human perception comprises informationally encapsulated modules (suggesting that this is evinced, rather than refuted, by plausible forms of cognitive penetration)